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How Is Steel Made?

Have you ever wondered how metal fabrication dallas tx? Here’s how it’s done.

Your metal fabrication dallas tx begins with reducing iron (pig iron production), which is later converted into steel.

You need the raw materials to use, which are:

  • Iron Ore,
  • Coke and

Coke is burned as fuel to heat the furnace, and as it burns, it releases carbon monoxide, which combines with the iron oxides in the ore and reduces them to iron.

Limestone from the furnace charge is an additional source of carbon monoxide and a fluxing substance. This material combines with the silica in the ore (which does not melt at furnace temperatures) to form calcium silicate, which has a lower melting point.

Without the limestone, iron silicate would be formed, and metallic iron would be lost. The calcium silicate and other impurities include a slag that floats on top of the molten metal at the bottom of the furnace.

The pig iron produced in blast furnaces has the following composition:

  • 92% iron
  • 3 to 4% carbon
  • 5 to 3% silicon
  • 25% to 2.5% manganese
  • 04 to 2% phosphorus
  • Some sulfur particles

The Blast Furnace is virtually a chemical plant that continuously reduces the iron in the ore. It chemically detaches oxygen from the iron oxide in the ore to liberate the iron. It consists of a cylindrical steel capsule lined with a non-metallic, heat-resistant material such as refractory bricks and cooling plates.

The lower part of the furnace is equipped with several tubular openings called nozzles, through which the air is forced to pass.

The upper part of the kiln contains exhaust vents and a pair of round hoppers through which the charge is fed into the kiln. The materials are carried to the hoppers in small wagons or ladles raised by an inclined elevator located outside the kiln.

The raw materials are loaded (or emptied) at the top of the kiln. Air, which has been preheated to approximately 1,030ÂșC, is forced into the oven base to burn the coke.

The burning coke generates the intense heat required to melt the ore and produces the gases necessary to separate the ore’s iron.

Blast furnaces operate continuously.

Essentially, the gaseous CO at high temperatures has a more significant attraction to the oxygen present in the iron ore (Fe2O3) than the iron itself, so it will react with it to release it. Chemically then, the iron has been reduced in the ore. Meanwhile, the molten limestone turns into lime at high temperature, which combines with sulfur and other impurities. This forms a slag that floats on top of the molten iron.

Silica: One of the components of sand.

Nozzle: A device that converts the thermal and pressure energy of fluid into kinetic energy.

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General Article

How Are Electrical Cables Made?

Nowadays, we take for granted many of the things we have at our fingertips; we usually don’t even wonder about their origin until they break down and we need to replace them. One of the most overlooked things is electrical wires. Have you ever noticed that your home, office, and hobby could not function well without those tiny, insignificant strands that ensure that the electrical charge or information flows appropriately? Do you have any idea who designs them, what it takes to build them, why they are the shape and thickness they are, who makes them, and how? What is the function of these new molded cable assemblies? Well, here are some of the answers.

Not all cables are the same; each one obeys the specific needs of the design of the equipment to which it will be attached and its purpose of use; hence there are different materials, thicknesses, types of insulation, and so on. The technology required for an electric cable to provide service for many years, without incident, involves complex manufacturing processes that require highly qualified personnel.

The two primary components of a cable are a conductor and insulation, the conductor conducts the electrical energy, and the insulation keeps that energy in the conductor. Conductors are usually made of copper, but aluminum is also used depending on the cable’s applications. In the manufacture of electric wires, the following processes are generally followed:

Drawing: consists of reducing the copper wire’s size until the desired final diameter is obtained, thus increasing its flexibility and conductivity.

Wiring: the wire strands are assembled in a stranding machine responsible for grouping the wires. Here the thickness of the conductor is determined.

Insulation: A layer of insulation material is applied to prevent current leakage. The material and type of insulation will depend on the kind of conductor it will cover, the energy flow it will contain, and the destination the cable will have. It is subjected to a voltage control to ensure no leaks anywhere, thus ensuring the continuity of the flow.

Phase wiring: it is the grouping of wires to build a multi conductor cable. Its identification can be made by color or by number. Voltage control is also performed here.

This is called the manufacturing of the cable core. However, the work is not finished yet because sometimes auxiliary elements are required.

Screen: used to prevent the electric current passing through the cable from causing noise and interference on the outside.

Armor: it serves as mechanical protection for the conductor cable, either shock, traction, and rodents.

Outer sheath: they have a polymeric sheath to protect the insulator and conductor against humidity and mechanical damage.

Cable marking: data such as manufacturer, commercial name, number of conductors, voltage, gauge, among other characteristics, are marked on the jacket or insulator.

Quality control ensures that they are free of defects, exposing them to high temperatures and shocks.

Expedition: they are stored and then distributed commercially according to orders.

Sustainability: recycling of copper waste outside and inside the factory.

Moreover, new molded cable assemblies are essential for operations of all shapes and sizes: major military jobs and harsh environments, home electronics, medical systems and equipment, and automotive assemblies are just the beginning.

New molded cable assemblies often replace an assembly that would otherwise rely on a backshell for protection and support. They can be manufactured in almost unlimited shapes, sizes, materials, and configurations and are designed to provide additional protection against the harshest conditions, most demanding environments, abrasion, sterilization, and general stress.…